?

Now a days people are very busy with their works so they need to save their time and easy way to complete their work so people are finding answers for that problems. As a result of that, people use new Tec Knowledge in their day to day life. Today we can see new methods and machines in our world we call new technologies for that.
New Tec Knowledge have become very important equipment in this modern life. The new inventions of new Tec Knowledge have cause beginning of new and strong industrial revolution. Nowadays each and everyone using new Tec Knowledge who working in different sectors.
For example:
1. Business
2. Education
3. Home Environment
4. Government
5. Hospital

We have many advantages and disadvantages about technologies there are,
Advantages
• Improved communication -: Today we can send SMS and Emails with our messages to any people at anytime and anywhere.
• Easy access to information – at anytime and anywhere -: we can use Google drive for save our document and any file. So We can retrieve it securely at the required time
• Convenience in education – online and mobile education -: Nowadays, books can be downloaded online from the Internet and they also use e-libraries. It’s help to save their time and money.
• Improved entertainment-: The ancient people used television of black-and-white but today we can use Color, LCD, LED, HD, full HD, 3D and 4K televisions.

• Makes work easier and faster-: We can obtain money from wherever we world by Visa card provided by the Bank so our needs can be met quickly.
?

Disadvantages
• Job loss -: With the introduction of Robot Technology and computers to the world companies are brought it because robots and computer behaves rightly and speedily.
• World destruction weapons -: With the advancement of technology and the advent of nuclear weapons, it has been threat into the defense of other countries
• Pollution -: today our environment is polluted because Vehicle’s sound and smoke, factories smoke and some wrong people’s activates.
New Tec Knowledge in business filed
New Tec knowledge is very important thing of business field because business people need to communication with customers and their employees, efficiency of operations, security, and research capacity. So they used the new Tec Knowledge
Today business people are use cloud computing and e money
Cloud computing in business filed
What is the cloud computing?
cloud computing means storing and accessing data and programs over the Internet instead of your computer’s hard drive. The cloud is just a metaphor for the Internet. It goes back to the days of flowcharts and presentations that would represent the gigantic server-farm infrastructure of the Internet as nothing but a puffy, white cumulus cloud, accepting connections and doling out information as it floats.
Why companies use cloud services?
• Maintaining Focus on the Business
• Business Agility
• Reduced Capital Expenditures
• Scale
• Access from Anywhere

?

Advantages of Cloud Computing
• Cost Savings- Businesses, no matter what their type or size, exist to earn money while keeping capital and operational expenses to a minimum.
• Reliability- With a managed service platform, cloud computing is much more reliable and consistent than in-house IT infrastructure.
• Manageability- Cloud computing provides enhanced and simplified IT management and maintenance capabilities through central administration of resources, vendor managed infrastructure and SLA backed agreements.
• Strategic Edge- Ever-increasing computing resources give you a competitive edge over competitors, as the time you require for IT procurement is virtually nil.
Disadvantages of Cloud Computing
• Downtime- As cloud service providers take care of a number of clients each day, they can become overwhelmed and may even come up against technical outages. This can lead to your business processes being temporarily suspended.
• Security- Although cloud service providers implement the best security standards and industry certifications, storing data and important files on external service providers always opens up risks.
• Vendor Lock-In- Although cloud service providers promise that the cloud will be flexible to use and integrate, switching cloud services is something that hasn’t yet completely evolved.

?

• Limited Control- Since the cloud infrastructure is entirely owned, managed and monitored by the service provide, it transfers minimal control over to the customer.
?
New Tec Knowledge in Education filled

Why today’s students need new Tec Knowledge in the classroom.
• Will help prepare students for their future careers.
• Integrating technology into the classroom is an effective way to connect with students of all learning styles.
• Students are able to access the most up-to-date information quicker and easier than ever before.
• The traditional passive learning model is broken. With technology in the classroom the teacher becomes the encourager, adviser, and coach
.
What are the advantages and disadvantages in using the new Tec Knowledge.
Advantages
• No More Heavy Backpacks
The further into your education that you get, the more things you are required bring with you each day. The backpacks of high school students are loaded down with the weight of textbooks, this would no longer be a problem if all learning resources for their education would through technology.
• Instantly Updated Information
The things that we know are always changing, and when this happens, educational resources like textbooks must be updated as well. This is possible with technology, and it has the ability to happen exponentially faster and cheaper than if all new books and resources has to be purchased.
• Supports Differentiated Instruction.

Disadvantages
•Not everything on the Internet is True
Anyone can post anything on the internet, but this doesn’t mean that it is true or correct. This is a problem when it comes to education because if students are seeking answers to a question, they could easily come across the incorrect answer and not realize it.
•Hinders Basic Skills
Technology automates just about everything. Instead of learning and understanding basic math, students can simply use their calculator on their phones. Spelling is another example of this, we need to make sure that students retain the ability to problem solve and think for themselves.
•Easier cheating
another one of the big problems that are argued when it comes to technology in education is just how easy it has become for students to cheat. They are able to simply search an answer to a question and instantly find the answer.?

Interactive whiteboard
Figure (Blogspot,2017)

Recently Interactive whiteboards is use in education. Interactive whiteboards for higher education
An interactive whiteboard is an instructional tool that allows computer images to be displayed onto a board using a digital projector. The instructor can then manipulate the elements on the board by using his finger as a mouse, directly on the screen. Items can be dragged, clicked and copied and the lecturer can handwrite notes, which can be transformed into text and saved. We can see very useful tools in interactive whiteboard there are,
? Screen shade Spotlight
? Magnifier
? Calculator
? Pointer

Teaching with an interactive whiteboard allows lecturers to accommodate all different learning styles.
• Tactile learners get to touch and move things around the board. They can also make notes and highlight elements.
• Visual learners benefit from a clear view of what is happening on the board.
• Audio learners can participate in a class discussion.
Advantages:
• Can be used by children of all ages.
• Can be used by children with disabilities.
• Promotes interactive learning.
• Promotes group collaboration.
• Helps teachers enhance their lessons by using interactive multi-media.

Disadvantages:
• Very expensive.
• Teachers use the smart board as a substitute for a whiteboard.
• Teachers aren’t getting training on how to use the smart boards.
• Can distract students.
?

Cloud computing in education sector
Cloud computing is becoming an adoptable technology for education sector. Cloud computing is very useful for schools, universities and other educational institutes because institutes have reduced the cost of the applications by moving to the cloud ,institutes have uploaded at least 1Tb of data to the cloud and they getting so many advantages use the service.

.

Advantages of Cloud computing in education sector
Easy Update: –
Roll out improvements to a lesson and need to change it back? Don’t worry about it. Cloud computing will spare various corrections and variants of a record with the goal that you can sequentially follow back the development of a thing.
In these and different ways, cloud computing is lessening costs, as well as making a situation where all students can have admittance to amazing instruction and assets. Whether you are a chairman, an instructor, a student, or the guardian of a student, now is an incredible time to investigate how cloud-based applications can advantage you, your youngsters, and your school.

Diminished Costs: –
Cloud-based administrations can help institutes decrease costs and quicken the utilization of new innovations to meet developing educational needs. Students can utilize office applications without purchasing, install and stay up with the latest on their PCs. It likewise gives the instructors of Pay per use for a few applications.
Share ability: –
Cloud computing opens up a universe of new conceivable outcomes for students , particularly the individuals who are not served well by customary training frameworks. With cloud computing, one can reach more and more diverse, students.
Figure (https://www.esds.co.in/blog/importance-of-cloud-computing-in-education-sector/#sthash.9CHTrpyx.EJnQdBQt.dpbs) 2017
?
New Tec knowledge in home environment
Today furniture are connect with other devices for example: smart T.V connect with over mobile phone not only that some lights, AC machines every time connect with our mobile so our homes are upgrade with new Tec Knowledge. As a result our feature homes will be very smart. Because new Tec Knowledge are made furniture with high Tec Knowledge.
For example:
• Smart Appliances
• Lighting Controls
• Automated Robots
• Power Tracking or Energy Efficiency tech

Smart Appliances

Figure (lifehack,2017)
As our devices such as our phones, watches and even jewelry become smarter and smarter, we’ll all begin to realize the benefits of owning smart appliances. Imagine a refrigerator that can have a nice glass of water waiting for you when you get to the kitchen — ordered directly from your mobile phone. Think of how awesome an internet-ready microwave would be — automatically tweeting out your quick meal to the world. Okay, so that last example was more of a joke but you get the point.
You can already purchase refrigerators, washers, dryers and other devices equipped with touchscreen displays and a bevy of sensors. A few of them are even internet ready, allowing you to install and use apps directly from the appliance.
What’s most exciting about the idea of smart appliances is that they will become increasingly more convenient, learning your preferences and making lives easier. Although, it does bring up a few questions about what big data companies might track, such as what time you eat every day and information like that.

?
?
Computer System

What is the computer system?
A computer system is a collection of elements with system of interconnected computers that share a central storage system that operate for one task. CPU, operating system and various peripheral devices such as a printers, scanners, or routers help to build computer system. All the Desktop computers, lap top computers, network computers are computer system.
We can see main four functions in computer system. There are Input, output, Process storage,

Figure (mathbits ,2017)
Input- the transferring of information into a computer system – for our purposes this will be accomplished when you, the programmer, type source code at the keyboard or open a previously typed program.
Processing – The manipulation and control of information within the computer system. Such manipulations are handled by the Control Unit, the Arithmetic Logic Unit and Temporary Storage.
Output- the displaying of information – for our purposes this will be accomplished when your program displays information on the monitor or printed on paper.
Storage- the means by which information can be “permanently” saved (until such time as you wish to delete it). This usually occurs on a hard drive, a diskette or a CD.

Hardware
Computer hardware is the collection of physical parts of a computer system. This includes the computer case, monitor, keyboard, and mouse. It also includes all the parts inside the computer case, such as the hard disk drive, motherboard, video card, and many others. Computer hardware is what you can physically touch.
(1.0) Central Processing Unit
That we called to CPU. It have to four main parts there are control Unit, central processing unit, register, cached memory.” The CPU is the primary component of a computer that process instructions. It runs the operating system and applications, constantly receiving input from the user or active software programs. It processes the data and produce output, which may store by an application or displayed on the screen.

(1.1) Control Unit
In the CPU, The primary components are the ALU (Arithmetic And Logical Unit) that performs mathematical, logical and decision operation and the CU (control unit) that directs all of the processors operations.

(1.2) Arithmetic and logical unit
That we can called ALU and it component of CU. ALU unit can process arithmetic and logic operations. Examples of arithmetic operations are addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. Examples of logic operations are comparisons of values such as NOT, AND, and OR. Modern CPUs contain very powerful and complex ALUs.

?

(1.3) Register
A register may hold an instruction, a storage address, or any kind of data. Some instructions specify registers as part of the instruction. For example, an instruction may specify that the contents of two defined registers be added together and then placed in a specified register.

(1.4) Cached memory
Cache memory is a small-sized type of volatile computer memory that provides high-speed data access to a processor and stores frequently used computer programs, applications and data. It is the fastest memory in a computer, and is typically integrated onto the motherboard and directly embedded in the processor or main random access memory

• (2.0) Storage Devices
Alternatively referred to as digital storage, storage media or storage medium, a storage device is any hardware capable of holding information either temporarily or permanently. There are two types of storage devices used with computers.
(2.1) Internal Storage Devices
Internal storage devices are connect to motherboard without any cable, circuit.it directly connect motherboard. Example for Internal Storage Devices
• (2.1.1)Random access memory (RAM)

Figure(https://www.google.lk/search?rlz=1C1GGRV_enLK751LK751&biw=1366&bih=627&tbm=isch&sa=1&q=ram&oq=ram&gs_l=psy-ab.3..0l4.6712.275600.0.276031.34.23.11.0.0.0.350.3343.0j22j0j1.23.0….0…1.1.64.psy-ab..0.32.2913.0..0i67k1j0i10k1j0i13k1.U8lULdFuL44#imgrc=U-R4limSQ0lAqM:) 2017

Alternatively referred to as main memory, primary memory, or system memory. Random Access Memory (RAM) is a hardware device that allows information to be stored and retrieved on a computer. RAM is usually associated with DRAM, which is a type of memory module. Because information is accessed randomly instead of sequentially like it is on a CD or hard drive, the computer can access the data much faster. However, unlike ROM or the hard drive, RAM is a volatile memory and requires power to keep the data accessible. If the computer is turned off, all data contained in RAM is lost.
The type of RAM doesn’t matter nearly as much as how much of it you’ve got, but using plain old SDRAM memory today will slow you down. There are main types of RAM: SDRAM, DDR and Rambus DRRAM.
• (2.1.2 )ROM
ROM stands for “read-only memory.” RAM and ROM are alike in certain respects as two forms of memory, so they are easily confused. In reality, they each play distinctive roles in the computer.
(2.2) External Storage Devices
External storage is all addressable data storage that is not currently in the computer’s main storage or memory. Synonyms are auxiliary storage and secondary storage. This devices support cables and circuits to connect motherboard.
• Magnetic storage devices

Today magnetic storage is one of most common types of storage used with computers and technology that many computer drive use.
• Floppy Disk
• Hard drive
• Supper Disk
• Tape cassette
• Zip diskette

• Optical storage devices
Another common storage is optical storage, which uses lasers and light as its method of reading and writing data.
• Blu-Ray disc
• CD-R and CD-RW disc
• DVD-R.DVD+R,DVD-RW and DVD+RW disc
Flash memory devices
• Jump drive or Flash drive
• Memory card
• SSD
(3.0) Input Devices
An input devices is any hardware device that send data to a computer, following you to interact with and control the computer. The picture shows a track ball mouse, an example of an input devices.
The most commonly used input devices on a computer are the keyboard and mouse. However, there are dozens of other devices that can also be used to input data into the computer. Below is a list of computer input devices that can be used with a computer or a computing devices.
Types of input device
• Keyboard
• Mouse
• Joy Stick
• Light pen
• Track Ball
• Scanner
• Graphic Tablet
• Microphone
• Magnetic Ink Card Reader(MICR)
• Optical Character Reader(OCR)
• Bar Code Reader
• Optical Mark Reader(OMR)
• Web cam
?

Keyboard
A computer keyboard is one of the primary input devices used with a computer that looks similar to those found on electric typewriters, but with some additional keys. The modern keyboard is based on the typewriter, a typing device that was first developed and patented in 1868 by Christopher Sholes. Keyboards allow you to input letters, numbers, and other symbols into a computer that often function as commands. The following image shows a Saitek keyboard with indicators pointing to each of the major key sections of a keyboard including the control keys, function keys, LED indicators, wrist pad, arrow keys, and keypad.

Mouse
The mouse come in to common use on a PC with the interdiction of the Microsoft windows operating system. There are many different type of mouse, a commonly used model now has a small wheel on it which when combined with the correct software allows additional function and fine control over the use of your applications
Computer mouse ports
Today, most computer mice connect to a computer using a USB port. Below is a listing of all of the type of ports and wireless connections that a mouse has used. Bluetooth, Infrared, PS/2 Port, Serial port, USB.

Light Pen
The light pen can be considered as the predecessor to touchscreen technology and was first created in 1955 as part of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology’s (MIT) Whirlwind Project, a Cold War vacuum tube military computer. The pen allowed users to precisely select individual pixels on the screen and to draw and interact with menu elements in much the same way as users interact with touchscreen displays. The light pen became common in the 1960s on graphics terminals such as the IBM 2250 and was also available for text-only terminals. It also became popular during the 1980s for home computers such as the Atari and Commodore 8-bit computers. However, the concept of operation of the light pen is not compatible with modern LCD screens and, as a result, the input device eventually died out.
The light pen works by detecting the change in brightness of nearby pixels, which indicates that the CRT’s electron beam is scanning in that area; it then sends the timing of this event to the computer, which then compares this information to the timestamp of the last scan by the electron beam, allowing the computer to infer the precise location of the pen.

Figure (https://www.techopedia.com/definition/2346/light-pen) 2017

(4.0) Output Devices
An output device is any peripheral that receives data from a computer, usually for display, projection, or physical reproduction. For example, the image shows an inkjet printer, an output device that can make a hard copy of any information show on your monitor. Another example of an output device is a computer monitor, which displays an image that is received from the computer. Monitors and printers are two of the most common output devices u with a computer. devices that can be used with a Below is a listing of the majority of the different output devices that can be used with a computer.
Types of output devices
• Monitor (LED, LCD, CRT etc)
• Printers (all types)
• Plotters
• Projector
• LCD Projection Panels
• Computer Output Microfilm (COM)
• Speaker(s)
• Head Phone
• Visual Display Unit
• Film Recorder

Monitor

A computer monitor technically termed as a visual display unit, can be plainly described as an electronic device that transmits information from the computer onto a screen, thereby acting as an interface and connecting the viewer with the computer. At present, computer monitors are available in a variety of shapes, designs, and colors. However, based on the technology used to make computer monitors, they can be broadly categorized into three types.

1. CRT (Cathode Ray Tube)
2. LCD (Liquid Crystal Display)
3. LED (Light-Emitting Diodes)

Printer

A printer is an external hardware output device responsible for taking electronic data stored Printers on a computer or device and generating a hard copy of that data. are on of the most commonly used peripherals on computers and are commonly used to print text and photos. The picture to the right is an example of a computer printer, the Lexmark Z605 Inkjet printer.

Projector
A projector or image projector is an optical device that projects an image (or moving images) onto a surface, commonly a projection screen. Most projectors create an image by shining a light through a small transparent lens, but some newer types of projectors can project the image directly, by using lasers.

?