506095457200ICON College of Technology and Management
Department of Health and Social Care
BTEC HND in Health and Social Care
Coursework
THE ROLE OF PUBLIC HEALTH
Tutor: Pindura MakufaSubmitted by
Name : student Parvin Moradi
ID No: 15273
00ICON College of Technology and Management
Department of Health and Social Care
BTEC HND in Health and Social Care
Coursework
THE ROLE OF PUBLIC HEALTH
Tutor: Pindura MakufaSubmitted by
Name : student Parvin Moradi
ID No: 15273
50609693980000312420062484000058420050800A 1.1
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558800457200004572003086100005080002514600WHO is a specialized agency of United Nations (UN)
It is majorly concerned with international public health
WHO has played a major role in eradication of many diseases worldwide with its programs .The agency focus in dealing with the communicable diseases like HIV/AIDS and non-communicable diseases like cancer among world populations. It is also responsible for international health surveys and publishing World Health Reports. WHO’s role in defining public health policies are based on providing leadership on matters critical to health and engaging in partnerships where joint action is needed. Shaping the research agenda and disseminating valuable knowledge.

Setting norms and standards and promoting and monitoring their implementation. Articulating ethical and evidence-based policy options. Providing technical support, catalysing change, and building sustainable institutional capacity Monitoring the health situation and assessing health trends (WHO, 1959)
00WHO is a specialized agency of United Nations (UN)
It is majorly concerned with international public health
WHO has played a major role in eradication of many diseases worldwide with its programs .The agency focus in dealing with the communicable diseases like HIV/AIDS and non-communicable diseases like cancer among world populations. It is also responsible for international health surveys and publishing World Health Reports. WHO’s role in defining public health policies are based on providing leadership on matters critical to health and engaging in partnerships where joint action is needed. Shaping the research agenda and disseminating valuable knowledge.

Setting norms and standards and promoting and monitoring their implementation. Articulating ethical and evidence-based policy options. Providing technical support, catalysing change, and building sustainable institutional capacity Monitoring the health situation and assessing health trends (WHO, 1959)
6921501346200Roles Of WHORoles Of WHO58420030861000038862003454400 Department of Health is the department of Government of UK
It is primarily responsible for various policies related with health and adult social care services in England
It is also responsible for the National Health Services of England
NHS England can be considered as an organization which oversees and acts as an Overseer of the implementation of the Health and Social Care Act 2012 of England
It plays a multi-facet role through budgeting, planning, delivery and day to day operation of the NHS in England
It is directly observed by the NHS commissioning board and was setup as special health authority of the NHS in 2011 in England
The sole purpose of the NHS England is to implement the National Health Scheme in England
It does it through implementing and overseeing the implementation of the clauses and lines of  HYPERLINK “https://locusassignments.com/courses/unit-2-principles-of-health-and-social-care/” “_blank” Health and Social Care Act 2012 of the English government
00 Department of Health is the department of Government of UK
It is primarily responsible for various policies related with health and adult social care services in England
It is also responsible for the National Health Services of England
NHS England can be considered as an organization which oversees and acts as an Overseer of the implementation of the Health and Social Care Act 2012 of England
It plays a multi-facet role through budgeting, planning, delivery and day to day operation of the NHS in England
It is directly observed by the NHS commissioning board and was setup as special health authority of the NHS in 2011 in England
The sole purpose of the NHS England is to implement the National Health Scheme in England
It does it through implementing and overseeing the implementation of the clauses and lines of  HYPERLINK “https://locusassignments.com/courses/unit-2-principles-of-health-and-social-care/” “_blank” Health and Social Care Act 2012 of the English government
40963852679700Roles of Department of
Health
00Roles of Department of
Health
4013200267970000401320057150000408940074930000406400571500LO1: Understand different approaches and strategies used to measure,
Monitor and control the incidence of disease in communities.

00LO1: Understand different approaches and strategies used to measure,
Monitor and control the incidence of disease in communities.

58420013462000045720045720049530063500A 1.1
00A 1.1
448310011176000044831001028700004953001206500Local Authorities in England work under the aegis of NHS in direct supervision of various SHAs of NHS which are ten in number based on geographical divides/boundaries all across the England.

Local Governments and Councils are responsible to implement the health and social care policies in their areas under the NHS SHA of that geography and is directly monitored by DH.

The transition of implementation and monitoring is done by various local agencies.

Local Government Association is an organization which collectively works for better public health transformation in the grass-root levels in England.

LGA’s major role and responsibilities are as follows:
Provide support to local authorities and health and wellbeing boards on embedding and utilizing the local health reforms, engendering future innovative practice
Develop the Health and Wellbeing System Improvement Program, grant funded by the Department of Health, in partnership with NHS England, Public Health England, Health-watch England, and the NHS Confederation.

Support Peer Challenge as a cornerstone of the system improvement program, applying the sector led improvement approach
Bring together national and local stakeholders to develop a program of exploratory and forward thinking health and wellbeing challenges (England, 2012)
00Local Authorities in England work under the aegis of NHS in direct supervision of various SHAs of NHS which are ten in number based on geographical divides/boundaries all across the England.

Local Governments and Councils are responsible to implement the health and social care policies in their areas under the NHS SHA of that geography and is directly monitored by DH.

The transition of implementation and monitoring is done by various local agencies.

Local Government Association is an organization which collectively works for better public health transformation in the grass-root levels in England.

LGA’s major role and responsibilities are as follows:
Provide support to local authorities and health and wellbeing boards on embedding and utilizing the local health reforms, engendering future innovative practice
Develop the Health and Wellbeing System Improvement Program, grant funded by the Department of Health, in partnership with NHS England, Public Health England, Health-watch England, and the NHS Confederation.

Support Peer Challenge as a cornerstone of the system improvement program, applying the sector led improvement approach
Bring together national and local stakeholders to develop a program of exploratory and forward thinking health and wellbeing challenges (England, 2012)
622300596900Roles of Local Authority
00Roles of Local Authority
55880016764005588005969000042481502942590- Ipsum
00- Ipsum
532130523240005715005076190006165853883660007124700508000007423156724650045720050800A 1.2
00A 1.2
6985005080057150067309900457200457200
546100965200Major findings of epidemiology of HIV in UK –
Approximately 98,400 people were living with HIV in UK, as per 2012
22% of these people were unaware of their infection status
There are approximately 7000 new cases detected in UK every year since, 2011, hence at the end of 2014, it is concerned that there will be almost, 1, 10,000 persons with HIV infections (Sullivan, 2005)
The status of AIDS patients in UK is almost one-third of the number of people suffering with HIV, i.e. almost 30,000 at the end of 2012 (HPA, 2013). There has been almost similar number of deaths within people suffering from HIV/AIDS in the year 2012 in UK, though not necessarily due to causes of HIV/AIDS
There has been a constant rise in epidemic in the number of new cases detected every year in UK, up-till late 2000s, with a considerable decline after that, but maintaining the overall number of HIV infections at all-time highs after that
Apart from various categories of HIV infected groups of patients, UK authorities have devised three new groups to identify new HIV infection detections, they are men who have sex with men (MSM), injecting drug users and people who receive blood products
Though the epidemic management efforts of UK government and authorities have bear results in terms of decline in number of patients suffering with AIDS over the years (Hamill, 2007)
A combined and multi-pronged approach with Combination Antiretroviral Treatment (CAT) and advanced genetic engineering has proved to be beneficial. Among various transmission routes of the infection heterosexual sex was on rise up-till late 2000s, but since after that it has declined and making MSMs as the chief responsible agent of viral transfer (PHE, 2013)
Major findings of epidemiology of HIV in UK –
Approximately 98,400 people were living with HIV in UK, as per 2012
22% of these people were unaware of their infection status
There are approximately 7000 new cases detected in UK every year since, 2011, hence at the end of 2014, it is concerned that there will be almost, 1, 10,000 persons with HIV infections (Sullivan, 2005)
The status of AIDS patients in UK is almost one-third of the number of people suffering with HIV, i.e. almost 30,000 at the end of 2012 (HPA, 2013). There has been almost similar number of deaths within people suffering from HIV/AIDS in the year 2012 in UK, though not necessarily due to causes of HIV/AIDS
There has been a constant rise in epidemic in the number of new cases detected every year in UK, up-till late 2000s, with a considerable decline after that, but maintaining the overall number of HIV infections at all-time highs after that
Apart from various categories of HIV infected groups of patients, UK authorities have devised three new groups to identify new HIV infection detections, they are men who have sex with men (MSM), injecting drug users and people who receive blood products
Though the epidemic management efforts of UK government and authorities have bear results in terms of decline in number of patients suffering with AIDS over the years (Hamill, 2007)
A combined and multi-pronged approach with Combination Antiretroviral Treatment (CAT) and advanced genetic engineering has proved to be beneficial. Among various transmission routes of the infection heterosexual sex was on rise up-till late 2000s, but since after that it has declined and making MSMs as the chief responsible agent of viral transfer (PHE, 2013)
99060067945000091440067945000054610050800A 1.2
00A 1.2
5461005715000045720050800A 1.2
00A 1.2
609600730250000787400730250000787400711200Major findings of epidemiology of Breast Cancer in UK –
Breast cancer has been the most common type of cancer in the UK since 1997
It is almost at the levels of 31% of all the new cases of cancers detected in females in the UK
There were almost 50,000 new cases of breast cancers in UK in the year 2010
The frequency of occurring of breast cancer is almost 157 new cases per 100,000 females in UK
The general status of new occurrences of cancer cases is being associated with old aged females
Approximately 80% new cases detected in females were for the age group of 50 and above, whereas, almost half of the incidents occurred in the age bracket of 50 – 69 (Key, 2001)
The incident occurrences is lower in lower income groups in UK
The lifetime expectancy risk for breast cancer in females in UK is 1 out of 8
As per the four stages of cancer, generally the new found breast cancers are detected in their early stages of Stage I to II with almost 90% cases being in those two zones and hence early detection leads to better prognosis (McPherson, 2000)
Breast cancer also affects men, but it is rare – around 350 men are diagnosed each year
About 55,000 people are diagnosed with breast cancer each year in the UK. That’s one person every 10 minutes
Just below 12,000 people die from breast cancer in the UK every year
Breast cancer is the most popular cancer in the UK (around a third of all new cancers diagnosed in women in the UK are breast cancer)
There are an estimated 550,000 people living in the UK today who have had a diagnosis of breast cancer (Brinton, 2014)
00Major findings of epidemiology of Breast Cancer in UK –
Breast cancer has been the most common type of cancer in the UK since 1997
It is almost at the levels of 31% of all the new cases of cancers detected in females in the UK
There were almost 50,000 new cases of breast cancers in UK in the year 2010
The frequency of occurring of breast cancer is almost 157 new cases per 100,000 females in UK
The general status of new occurrences of cancer cases is being associated with old aged females
Approximately 80% new cases detected in females were for the age group of 50 and above, whereas, almost half of the incidents occurred in the age bracket of 50 – 69 (Key, 2001)
The incident occurrences is lower in lower income groups in UK
The lifetime expectancy risk for breast cancer in females in UK is 1 out of 8
As per the four stages of cancer, generally the new found breast cancers are detected in their early stages of Stage I to II with almost 90% cases being in those two zones and hence early detection leads to better prognosis (McPherson, 2000)
Breast cancer also affects men, but it is rare – around 350 men are diagnosed each year
About 55,000 people are diagnosed with breast cancer each year in the UK. That’s one person every 10 minutes
Just below 12,000 people die from breast cancer in the UK every year
Breast cancer is the most popular cancer in the UK (around a third of all new cancers diagnosed in women in the UK are breast cancer)
There are an estimated 550,000 people living in the UK today who have had a diagnosis of breast cancer (Brinton, 2014)
60960062230000209550099314000066040063500A 1.2
00A 1.2
6604001193800SOME of the statistics and findings
00SOME of the statistics and findings
558800199390000749300889000007493001016000Epidemiology is the study and analysis of the patterns, causes and effect of wellbeing and diseases of the populations. It is the basics of public health which defines policy decisions and evidence based practice by identifying risk factors for disease and goals for preventive measures in healthcare.

00Epidemiology is the study and analysis of the patterns, causes and effect of wellbeing and diseases of the populations. It is the basics of public health which defines policy decisions and evidence based practice by identifying risk factors for disease and goals for preventive measures in healthcare.

5715005969000020955003149600063500030734005080007010400 Incidence is the rate of newly diagnosed cases of illness reported within a period of time. It contains information about the risk of contracting the disease.

Prevalence shows how the disease is widespread. A prevalence rate is the overall number of cases of an illness occurring in a population divided by the total population. So if a measurement of HIV taken in a population of 40.000individuals and 1.200 were diagnosed recently with HIV and 3.500 are living with the disease, then the prevalence of HIV is 0.118. (11.750 per 100.000persons)
Incidence and prevalence are terms usually used in describing disease epidemiology.

00 Incidence is the rate of newly diagnosed cases of illness reported within a period of time. It contains information about the risk of contracting the disease.

Prevalence shows how the disease is widespread. A prevalence rate is the overall number of cases of an illness occurring in a population divided by the total population. So if a measurement of HIV taken in a population of 40.000individuals and 1.200 were diagnosed recently with HIV and 3.500 are living with the disease, then the prevalence of HIV is 0.118. (11.750 per 100.000persons)
Incidence and prevalence are terms usually used in describing disease epidemiology.

508000457200003175000381001.2
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533400622300Approaches and strategies adopted by NHS to control HIV and Breast Cancer in the UK –
NHS setup under the aegis of Department of Health has various programs and schemes going on for the prevention of both HIV and Breast Cancer incidences in UK
NHS for Breast Cancer –
Setup Cancer Screening Program under the aegis of Public Health England (PHE)
Supporting various local governments and agencies on Research & Development (R&D) and Clinical Researches on breast cancer, government run a  HYPERLINK “https://locusassignments.com/courses/abi-college-unit-6-research-project/” “_blank” research project for this.

A full-fledged website and information registry under Cancer Screening Program (CSP)
NHS CSP includes three cancer screening programs
NHS Breast Screening Program
NHS Cervical Screening Program
NHS Bowel Cancer Screening Program
Supporting various Breast Cancer related studies under NHS BSP, like –
Absolute numbers of lives saved and over-diagnosis in breast cancer screening (Gunsoy, 2014)
Age at which women are screened for breast cancer
Second All Breast Cancer Report 2007
Age Trial
Non-Invasive Breast Cancer Report
Million Women Study
In England, the breast screening program is now estimated to cost around £96 million a year (ACBCS, 2006)
Supporting various Charities, Non-Government Organizations (NGOs), Research Facilities etc. like Breast Cancer Care and Against Breast Cancer
NHS for HIV –
Setup HIV Screening Program under the aegis of Health Protection Agency (HPA), which comes under PHE
Supporting various local governments and agencies on Research & Development (R&D) and Clinical Researches on HIV
A full-fledged website and information registry under HPA
Supporting various Charities, Non-Government Organizations (NGOs), Research Facilities etc. like AIDS Alliance, Avert and Positively UK etc.
00Approaches and strategies adopted by NHS to control HIV and Breast Cancer in the UK –
NHS setup under the aegis of Department of Health has various programs and schemes going on for the prevention of both HIV and Breast Cancer incidences in UK
NHS for Breast Cancer –
Setup Cancer Screening Program under the aegis of Public Health England (PHE)
Supporting various local governments and agencies on Research & Development (R&D) and Clinical Researches on breast cancer, government run a  HYPERLINK “https://locusassignments.com/courses/abi-college-unit-6-research-project/” “_blank” research project for this.

A full-fledged website and information registry under Cancer Screening Program (CSP)
NHS CSP includes three cancer screening programs
NHS Breast Screening Program
NHS Cervical Screening Program
NHS Bowel Cancer Screening Program
Supporting various Breast Cancer related studies under NHS BSP, like –
Absolute numbers of lives saved and over-diagnosis in breast cancer screening (Gunsoy, 2014)
Age at which women are screened for breast cancer
Second All Breast Cancer Report 2007
Age Trial
Non-Invasive Breast Cancer Report
Million Women Study
In England, the breast screening program is now estimated to cost around £96 million a year (ACBCS, 2006)
Supporting various Charities, Non-Government Organizations (NGOs), Research Facilities etc. like Breast Cancer Care and Against Breast Cancer
NHS for HIV –
Setup HIV Screening Program under the aegis of Health Protection Agency (HPA), which comes under PHE
Supporting various local governments and agencies on Research & Development (R&D) and Clinical Researches on HIV
A full-fledged website and information registry under HPA
Supporting various Charities, Non-Government Organizations (NGOs), Research Facilities etc. like AIDS Alliance, Avert and Positively UK etc.
533400558800003035300508001.3
001.3
533400571500Evaluate the effectiveness of different approaches and strategies to control the incidence of disease in communities.

Educating the population through advertisement and public awareness about the effect of fast food on the body causing over weight and obesity which leads to diabetes and other health issues.

Promotion of diabetes monitoring, regular health check ups and change of life style like healthy diet and exercises
Explaining and advertising the high risk of multiple partners of contracting HIV through unprotecting sex. The importance of frequent blood test and the availability of free condoms at sex clinics.

Promotion of diabetes monitoring, regular health check ups and change of life style like healthy diet and exercises.Smoking is alleviates the risk of getting cancer of the lungs which is a great
concern to the government as it is one of the biggest killers costing the NHS
millions of pound a year . The government is promoting a stop smoking campaign by setting up centers to help those who wish to stop smoking . Trained volunteers and outreach workers to assist health services promote Stop Smoking.

Reduction in homelessness . Building more affordable homes to support those living in overcrowded poor areas as poverty contributes to depression which leads to poor mental wellbeing . Improving the local economy by creating jobs.

Summary:
The Government has to ensure law and legislation are put in place to protect people from spreading of diseases , the population have access to primary care and are educated about prevention and spread of diseases.
The different approaches and strategies used to measure, monitor and control the incidence of disease in the community is very important in the role of public health .00Evaluate the effectiveness of different approaches and strategies to control the incidence of disease in communities.

Educating the population through advertisement and public awareness about the effect of fast food on the body causing over weight and obesity which leads to diabetes and other health issues.

Promotion of diabetes monitoring, regular health check ups and change of life style like healthy diet and exercises
Explaining and advertising the high risk of multiple partners of contracting HIV through unprotecting sex. The importance of frequent blood test and the availability of free condoms at sex clinics.

Promotion of diabetes monitoring, regular health check ups and change of life style like healthy diet and exercises.Smoking is alleviates the risk of getting cancer of the lungs which is a great
concern to the government as it is one of the biggest killers costing the NHS
millions of pound a year . The government is promoting a stop smoking campaign by setting up centers to help those who wish to stop smoking . Trained volunteers and outreach workers to assist health services promote Stop Smoking.

Reduction in homelessness . Building more affordable homes to support those living in overcrowded poor areas as poverty contributes to depression which leads to poor mental wellbeing . Improving the local economy by creating jobs.

Summary:
The Government has to ensure law and legislation are put in place to protect people from spreading of diseases , the population have access to primary care and are educated about prevention and spread of diseases.
The different approaches and strategies used to measure, monitor and control the incidence of disease in the community is very important in the role of public health .533400495300007493001320800References
Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer Screening. 2006. Screening for breast cancer in England: past and future. Journal of Medical Screening, 13(2), 59-61. Almond, M. 2014. Participation in the New Public Health Landscape. In Decentralizing Health Services (pp. 147- 159). Springer New York. Brinton, L. A., Cook, M. B., McCormack, V., Johnson, K. C., Olsson, H., Casagrande, J. T., … & Thomas, D. B. 2014. Anthropometric and Hormonal Risk Factors for Male Breast Cancer: Male Breast Cancer Pooling Project Results. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 106(3), djt465. Brown, T., Platt, S., & Amos, A. 2014. Equity impact of European individual-level smoking cessation interventions to reduce smoking in adults: a systematic review. The European Journal of Public Health, cku065. Cavill, N., Biddle, S., & Sallis, J. F. 2001. Health enhancing physical activity for young people: statement of the United Kingdom expert consensus conference. Paediatric Exercise Science, 13(1), 12-25. Coleman, A., Checkland, K., Segar, J., McDermott, I., Harrison, S., & Peckham, S. 2014. Joining it up? Health and Wellbeing Boards in English Local Governance: Evidence from Clinical Commissioning Groups and Shadow Health and Wellbeing Boards. Local Government Studies, (ahead-of-print), 1-21. England , N. H. S. 2013. Putting Patients First: The NHS England business plan for 2013 (Vol. 16, p. p16). 14–2015. England, N. H. S. 2012. The CCG outcomes indicator set 2013/2014. Gunsoy, N. B., Garcia-Closas, M., & Moss, S. M. 2014. Estimating breast cancer mortality reduction and over diagnosis due to screening for different strategies in the United Kingdom. British journal of cancer. Hamill, M., Burgoine, K., Farrell, F., Hemelaar, J., Patel, G., Welchew, D. E., & Jaffe, H. W. 2007. Time to move towards opt-out testing for HIV in the UK. BMJ,334(7608), 1352-1354. HPA 2013‚ ‘United Kingdom – National HIV data surveillance tables’
00References
Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer Screening. 2006. Screening for breast cancer in England: past and future. Journal of Medical Screening, 13(2), 59-61. Almond, M. 2014. Participation in the New Public Health Landscape. In Decentralizing Health Services (pp. 147- 159). Springer New York. Brinton, L. A., Cook, M. B., McCormack, V., Johnson, K. C., Olsson, H., Casagrande, J. T., … & Thomas, D. B. 2014. Anthropometric and Hormonal Risk Factors for Male Breast Cancer: Male Breast Cancer Pooling Project Results. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 106(3), djt465. Brown, T., Platt, S., & Amos, A. 2014. Equity impact of European individual-level smoking cessation interventions to reduce smoking in adults: a systematic review. The European Journal of Public Health, cku065. Cavill, N., Biddle, S., & Sallis, J. F. 2001. Health enhancing physical activity for young people: statement of the United Kingdom expert consensus conference. Paediatric Exercise Science, 13(1), 12-25. Coleman, A., Checkland, K., Segar, J., McDermott, I., Harrison, S., & Peckham, S. 2014. Joining it up? Health and Wellbeing Boards in English Local Governance: Evidence from Clinical Commissioning Groups and Shadow Health and Wellbeing Boards. Local Government Studies, (ahead-of-print), 1-21. England , N. H. S. 2013. Putting Patients First: The NHS England business plan for 2013 (Vol. 16, p. p16). 14–2015. England, N. H. S. 2012. The CCG outcomes indicator set 2013/2014. Gunsoy, N. B., Garcia-Closas, M., & Moss, S. M. 2014. Estimating breast cancer mortality reduction and over diagnosis due to screening for different strategies in the United Kingdom. British journal of cancer. Hamill, M., Burgoine, K., Farrell, F., Hemelaar, J., Patel, G., Welchew, D. E., & Jaffe, H. W. 2007. Time to move towards opt-out testing for HIV in the UK. BMJ,334(7608), 1352-1354. HPA 2013‚ ‘United Kingdom – National HIV data surveillance tables’
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