Descartes analyses two arguments to proof God’s existence. His idea of proofing God’s existence was based on the idea to emphasize his clear and distinct perception. In the first argument, which is the ontological argument, he proofed God’s existence by saying, that God is a perfect being and it is more perfect to exist than not to exist, so there for God must exist.
His second proof was more complex than the first. This argument is based on two forms of reality- formal reality and objective reality. Formal reality he said is the reality that anything has a virtue of existing which comes in grades- infinite, finite and the mode. God is the only existing thing with infinite formal reality.
He went further to explain that, ideas can be said to have objective reality, this reality also have three grades as it mirrored the three grades of formal reality. He then explained that the amount of objective reality contained in an idea is determined by the basis of the amount of formal reality contained in the object represented by the idea. By this, Descartes claimed that all humans have an idea of God as an infinite being. (he believed that we cannot fail to have this idea because he thinks it is innate).
He said something cannot come from nothing so there must be as much reality in a cause as in an effect and so there must as much formal reality in a cause of an idea as there is objective reality in an idea. Since humans have an idea with infinite objective reality, (the idea of God) he concluded that there is a being with infinite formal reality who caused this idea. Meaning God Exist. Looking at the two arguments put forward by Descartes to proof God’s existence, the second proof is more complex than the first, and it is also convincing looking at the cause and effect analysis.
In his recount of free will, Descartes explains how human errors came about. In discussing the faculty of judgement, he noticed that everything in him is certainly received from God, and because the faculty of judgement comes from God, who is a perfect non-deceiver then it is impossible for the faculty of judgement to ever go wrong.
A faculty received from God could never go wrong. It is in this light that he was concerned in the origin of human error, though the faculty of judgement comes from God, human beings frequently make mistakes.
Descartes also noticed that though he was made by God he is not “God-like” but rather something between the supreme being and non-being. As an intermediary between God and nothingness, human errors do not come from God but merely a defect that comes from being an imperfect being.
He looked at himself to determine the nature of human error and noticed that, it depends on two concurrent causes- The faculty of knowledge which is within him and the faculty of choice or freedom of will. (that is human error depends simultaneously on the intellect and the will.). He then immediately ruled out the intellect because, it enabled him to perceive ideas which are subjects to possible judgement, thus he thinks that the source of human error is the will since the will or freedom of choice was given by God.
He further analyzed that the will is infinite since it is not restricted in any way- thus the will is the judging faculty which consist in our ability to do or not to do something. So, he concluded that humans make error because the scope of the will is wider than that of the intellect.
The intellect can understand very little but will can judge anything including those it fails to understand. Errors arise because the intellect being finite, cannot distinctly perceive everything, as such some perceptions are confused. This is the cause of human errors.
Had it been the intellect was able to distinctly perceive the power of the will, the will would have chosen not to affirm it but since the intellect was confused in its perception the will affirmed something it otherwise would not. Thus, human errors came about when people attempt to judge things that are beyond the scope of human understanding.
Descartes arguments are convincing to me because, even today there is a lot of human error, consciously or unconsciously due to the dynamic nature of humans in their quest for knowledge and free will.