“Truancy is a product of a combination of social, economic and attitudinal factors which invariably reflect in students’ academic performance and challenges the competence and resources of school counsellors”. (Animasahun, 2003).When a student come to school or to any institution there is a combination of deliberate acts and activities that have an effect on the behaviour and character of an individual student. Education in school is where the emotions and knowledge of students are transmitted. It is mostly focused on the part of character development, behaviour and value orientation especially amongst our young youths of today.

However, in recent times it had been visible that a change of behaviour and in character of youths are being reflected in the pattern of classroom behaviour. If unchecked, such behaviour may become a problem in the classroom learning environment. One of such behaviour is truancy among secondary school students. Truancy is not a new problem, but a problem that has been here over the last decade and had not been an issue as such as now.

Thus, in this assignment I would be looking at the topic – Student Truancy at Secondary School. The purpose of this assignment is to look at the causes of truancy and high rates of excused absences of students from school and also from their class.

The following are the case studies which elaborates more on issues of truancy in school.

Study 1

Truancy Among Public Secondary School Students – implication for counselling
Ehindero Serifat Adefunke: Department of Educational Foundations and Counselling, Faculty of Education, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife. Nigeria.

In this case study the author had studied different schools to get the ideas as to why student played truancy in school and what were the main reasons for truancy and measures taken to distinguish the different levels of truancy. Relevant details had been added to the reading to make it more understandable as to what was the content of the journal.

As indicated by the Journal, in this the investigation was evaluated in Nigeria to the commonness of truancy among secondary school students. It decided the inclining elements to truancy. The examination conceived methods for checking the rate of truancy in secondary schools. It embraced overview plan in which secondary school students in Osun State which had one hundred and seventy-five (175) students from the 3 local states , were arbitrarily chosen. Ten secondary schools were chosen. The exploration likewise had Questionnaire on Truancy and was utilized to gather information for the investigation.
The investigation demonstrated that more male students were truant from school without authorization than female student. In this way, truancy was common however more among male students than female students. It was noticed that the students of age between 13-15 years committed truancy .According to the examination it was discovered that student related factor of peer pressure and school/instructor related factor were for the most part the components to students truancy. It was in this way inferred truancy was pervasive in schools and it was related to understanding truancy and enhancing school offices and characteristics of direction and guiding administrations rendered to check truancy among school students.

It was noted that the discoveries of the examination demonstrated that truancy was pervasive among government funded school students since students were not capable to answer teachers questions effectively and would feel embarrassed in front of other students. Students had other related issues to truancy as they were not scholastically stable may likewise feel discouraged, have a tendency to have no confidence, less social abilities or estranged by their mates ,school disappointment, learning handicap and learning style could make students defenceless to truancy.
Absence of transport to class was another reason that made truancy to be predominant among government funded school students. Poor students who didn’t have parental help were in danger to truancy. It examined that students from poor homes missed school as they needed to search for different alternatives to meet the family needs, for example, administering to a more youthful kin or attempting to help the family salary amid school hours. Budgetary deficiency and related monetary issues inside the family could be another motivation to incline student truancy.

Furthermore, another issue talked about was that students blamed educators for poor showing of strategies and they were not keen on learning in the class and were not liable to think. Subsequently such students got behind in the school work which was referred to as an essential purpose behind truancy and more averse to go to classes where they had missed a few lessons and did not take after what was happening in the classroom. It was examined that poor learning condition, absence of introduction, absence of parental control from home, disparage, poor educating and absence of enthusiasm for a subject, dread of discipline make truancy more common among students.

The finding of this study exhibited that teachers/school factor was not through and through related to truancy however students would be truant from school probably because of their poor educational execution and the way they were managed by their instructors (fear of instructors) poor instructor student relationship. The probability of relationship could be another related factor to slant students to truancy. The condition was disturbed by the nonappearance of significant worth coordinating to help benefits in most assistant schools. Measurement factors like age, sex and religion were found not to slant students to truancy.
The consequences of this investigation recommend the requirement for incredible change in the administrations rendered by school . Despite the fact that few of these units are prepared to work successfully , there was a need to concentrate the consideration on conceivable effects and impacts on center variables which helped secondary school students.
Likewise, School advisors needed to team up with both the school expert and the heads of branch of various subjects to guarantee that educators utilize suitable strategies for instructing and utilization of interactive media innovations to make their showing charming and intriguing to their students. Along these lines both teacher related and student related components referred to by students and observed to be huge as inclining students to truancy. At the end of the day, guiding was basically an individualization and training of the instruction procedure through intuitive engagements/discourse between the counsellor and counsellee in view of the uniqueness and one of a kind needs of the advisor. It was in this manner the duty of a counsellor to enable people to design, to get and get greatest advantage from instructive, social, professional and different sorts of experience which will empower students to find and create themselves, obtain important information, aptitudes, state of mind, qualities and intrigue that would empower them wind up noticeably subject of advancement.
Moreover, it was expressed counsellors required to embrace definite investigation of the socio-statistic elements of students and utilize their comprehension of such to enhance their advising of students to keep their powerlessness to truancy. A progression of mediation projects and exercises could be masterminded to re-orientate and restore potential truants among students. Such projects and exercises could concentrate on conceivable and potential inclining factors as recognized in this study and used to construct and reinforce the expert limit of counsellors. Counsellors ought to likewise leave on serious mindfulness and esteem – introduction, illuminate students, educators and guardians on those inclining factors that could make students defenceless against truancy including an accentuation on the negative ramifications of truancy in students? scholastic learning and character advancement.

Study 2
LORENZO A. TRUJILLO School Truancy: A Case Study of A Successful Truancy Reduction In the Public Schools .In this case study the author discusses the issues of truancy the ways in which they had worked to reduce the truancy cases in their school and society. Issues have been discussed on the means and ways in which they had been able to help the truant students and also help parents.

For this case contemplate the primary concentration was to diminish truancy in school. The issue identifying with truancy had been there for quite a while. The writer had discussed measures that were taken to lessen truancy in their nation and in school. Because of truancy there had been an expansion in the rate of truancy. In this investigation we will see that unexcused school non-attendance, truancy, was not another issue. School participation laws was embrace to check student do not work and made it necessary that each student ought to be in school and not working.
Techniques were formulated to keep students in schools. Truant young people were frequently away from school for such a timeframe and weren’t aware of the work appointed to them and this prompted further separation from school, from educators and prompted hostility to social conduct like adolescent wrongdoing. The state embraced a pronouncement of zero resilience approaches that inclined toward truancy. Truancy was likewise a solid indicator of adolescent issues, including reprobate action, social seclusion, posse inclusion, instructive disappointment, substance abuse, misconduct, adolescent pregnancy, and school dropout. Also, high truancy rates had been connected to daytime theft and vandalism. The Washington police recorded that a large portion of the offenses were conferred from morning till early afternoon and were committed by adolescents. After police began referring to truant young people the wrongdoing rate dropped altogether. For the crime to drop it was fundamental that the state, school and groups cooperate to battle the contrary impact of truancy.
Techniques which was concocted to keep students in schools were not working. Truant young people are frequently missing from school for such a timeframe and couldn’t stay aware of the work doled out to them and this prompt further separation from school, from instructors and prompt genuine against social conduct like adolescent misconduct. The strategy for sending student home for not coming to class gives next to zero intercession to the basic reasons for the unlucky deficiencies and is counterproductive to the instructive procedure.”, the state embraced a pronouncement of zero resistance approaches that inclination toward brutality. Truancy was likewise a solid indicator of adolescent issues, including reprobate action, social seclusion, posse association, instructive disappointment, substance manhandle, wrongdoing, teenager pregnancy, and school dropout.
Moreover, students view of school and how they feel in the classroom condition were not worthy determinants for kids choosing whether to go to school. School atmosphere, including connection to educators, the impact of particular truancy arrangements, and sentiments of physical security, has been an influence a students who want to go to school. Reasons, for truancy, are truant adolescents: (1) getting behind in schoolwork is regularly referred to as an essential explanation behind truancy, as a kid is less inclined to go to class where he/she has missed a few lessons and does not understand what is happening in the classroom, (2) fatigue with unessential educational modules, (3) a school situation where students feel that no one think about them or when you show up teachers would prefer not to be there, (4) disregard or the presence of irreverence from staff, and (5) just feeling “awkward” at school. A students emotions about school are known as “school attachment.”
However, the cost of truancy lessening programs was insignificant contrasted with the societal cost of secondary school disappointment and adolescent misconduct. Students with the most astounding truancy rates have the least result accomplishment rates, and in light of the fact that truants are the young destined to drop out of school, they have high dropout rates too. The general gathering therefore pronounces that two of the most essential factors in guaranteeing a childs instructive advancement were parental contribution and parental obligation. The general get together further announces that it is the commitment of each parent to guarantee that each youngster under such parent’s care and supervision gets satisfactory instruction and training.
The law that was set for students were that in the event that the is the student kept on being truant, the student might be sent straightforwardly to the region court. Then again, the student was sent to an Inter Agency Hearing, if truancy proceeds and the student was recognized, by the In-District Hearing Officer, as an uncommon needs student, had reprobate practices of a criminal sort, or psychological well-being issues that are past the extent of the school locale.
The District Attendance Officer/Attorney for the school area documented the case with the locale court and set a date for the hearing and advisement of the students and family. The locale court officer/judge hears the case. In the event that the family and student preclude the charges from claiming routine truancy, a trial is held. On the off chance that the family and family are discovered not routinely truant and in consistence, the case is expelled. On the off chance that the court finds the student routinely truant, or the understudy and family concede the charges, the court arranges the student to go to class.
Furthermore, an audit hearing would be then planned, if the student is consenting to the Order to Compel School Attendance, the case is rejected without bias or set for later survey if there is motivation to accept and if there were requirement for additionally observing of the students advance and prosperity. If the student does not follow the Order to Compel School Attendance, the school lead prosecutor may rule the court for a Contempt Citation. In the event that the court concedes the movement for scorn, a date for survey and a hearing on the disdain reference were set to give the student and family with a notice. Notice must be given to the respondent at least twenty days preceding the hearing. In the event that disdain is conceded or demonstrated, the court may force sanctions, including a fine of up to twenty-five dollars for each day of nonattendance, up to a half year in prison, expulsion of the understudy’s driving benefits, group administration, medication and liquor testing or potentially advising, psychological wellness assessment, and some other authorize considered proper by the court. These are not kidding outcomes that might be forced on the guardians of students, and additionally upon the students who are of an age to comprehend the ramifications of their conduct.
Truancy was the sine qua non (hidden central factor) of more terrible issues, which show themselves in conduct including drugs, weapons, ambushes, and routinely troublesome conduct. Left unattended, this issue will keep on having an extreme effect on schools, courts, and groups. Adams County School District has actualized an arrangement that has turned to be fruitful. Nonetheless, the procedure is a long way from being done. It would continue to develop and evolve as the importance of school attendance gains more focus as a factor in school accreditation and students’ academic and lifelong success.

Study 3
Author: Sydney McKinney Truancy: A Research Brief Date of Publication: December 12, 2013
In this research case the author has discussed about what is truancy, the reason if the issue matters to people are they aware why students are truant and the reasons that make them play truant and not attend to classes or school.

The author discussed that truancy was generally considered any unexcused or unverified absence from school. Because states enact their own school attendance laws, the legal definition of truancy may vary from state to state.

Consistently, youth entering the adolescent equity framework as a result of practices that are dangerous. The most well-known of these practices are known as status offenses which is truancy. While missing or playing truant may not significantly affect students, guardians and educational systems frequently battle to discover successful approaches to react to perpetual truancy.
According to the survey of the author, forty-three states incorporate truancy as a status offense assertion with court cases. Once in the adolescent court framework, youngsters in roughly 2,400 cases wound up in confinement and around 2,100 cases brought about a court air (sentence) of out-of-home placement.3 That same year, schools were the referral source in almost 50% of all truancy petitions, trailed by law implementation.
This brief depends on a survey of 53 observational investigations that concentrated on truancy through different focal points—from chance and defensive factors and reasons why youth play hooky to treatment and counteractive action. Most articles were acquired from peer inspected diaries, and a modest number were reports created by not-for-profit explore associations.

According to the author the consequences of truancy is far beyond. Research had shown failure to address chronic truancy can result in a host of problems for youth. Truancy has been linked to school dropout and poor academic performance and increases the likelihood that youth will engage in drug and alcohol use, fighting, theft, and more serious forms of delinquency. Over the long term, adults who were chronically truant as adolescents are more likely to have poorer health outcomes, lower paying jobs, and a greater chance of being incarcerated during their lifetime.

Research has demonstrated that sex and age are corresponded with truancy, and that associations with guardians and companions likewise impact students? choices to play truant. Some of the issues that came to light was that
Males were truancy than females. Many student who played truant were among 16 year olds.

Students who had peer pressure did do well in school work whereas student who didn’t have peer pressure did better in academically. Low levels of parental control and checking has been related with truancy. Conversely, parental inclusion (i.e., discourses with youngsters about school, helping with homework, interest in parent-instructor associations) has been appeared to help school execution and diminish the probability of future truancy.
Student lost the connection to the school work and didn’t perform well in school ten to drop out of school or not come to school at all and student when they did not come to school were found to be involved in criminal doings.

However, the research states that the students who didn’t attend classes gave silly excuses like they missed the bus or didn’t feel like coming to school. Results from research stated that students were victimised (i.e., teasing, physical victimization, and sexual harassment) and these students who had been victimised by classmates didn’t want to attend school and have a higher rate of truancy. Some prevention and intervention methods were also used to reduce student truancy. Programs were put in place for student to do and the effect of the program was that the student truancy dropped to some amount.

Moreover, the study of the research had not been at a loss there were some improvement in the student behaviour and some schools still are facing the problem of truancy. The intervention of the truancy programs in school has been a help for the researcher. Research recommends that English dialect capacity has problms changing in accordance with the school condition and students leaving school. These elements might just add to truancy, yet without information, hazard and defensive components for truancy among this populace stay hazy.
Assessments of truancy should utilize more complexity trial and semi exploratory and outlines that yield more dependable discoveries of program which has the impact. The greater part of assessments depended on distinct investigations of program results, for example, changes after some time in the level of incessantly truant students in a school, normal upgrades in participation, and rates of students who effectively complete the program. In spite of the fact that the data collected was imperative, the investigations neglect to demonstrate how powerful intercessions are in contrast with different situations or no situation at all when factors, for example, statistic attributes, are controlled for.
Furthermore, these studies were particularly helpful in deciding how compelling the conventional court demonstrate was at enhancing school participation contrasted with non-court based models. The outcomes recommend more research and was expected to unload the impacts of adolescent court on school participation.

Moreover, on the grounds that couple of assessments of truancy intercessions utilize exploratory or semi trial plans, there is restricted learning about “what works” in truancy counteractive action. More research like this is expected to comprehend which mediation models and techniques are best at enhancing school participation and engagement.
Likewise, more assessments would be considered as to which particular program segments should be added to students achievement and research to be done to empower experts in the field to configure programs made out of components appeared to be viable at propelling objectives of lessening constant truancy.

Study 4
Bill Rivers; Truancy: Causes, Effects, and Solution; St. John Fisher College
In this study the author has discussed the causes, effects and solutions to truancy. In the research it is stated that truancy oud be defined as illegal absence from school. The author did research program to find out the facts of truancy.

The author stated that truancy was a problem that was seriously affecting the overall success of the large urban school district, and in particular, the specific school in which the author is employed. From the authors point of view truancy could be defined as consecutive illegal absences from class or school.

The purpose of the research was to develop a solution that could be proposed in an effort to decrease, or eliminate truancy altogether which would be initiated at the beginning of next school year. Therefore, the first objective was to identify causes, effects, and solutions to truancy based on a review of literature. The second objective was to verify the causes of truancy and get results with teacher opinions of the same causes.
The final objective was to identify how teachers felt about truancy and realize what, or how much time the teachers were willing to offer in an effort to decrease, or eliminate the problem altogether.

The examination was led at a school inside a substantial urban school region in western New York. This was a school for students living inside the range of the bigger urban
locale and gives students and their families with a contrasting option to the reliably lowperforming urban school . This site was chosen since it was the school in which the author was utilized and furthermore in light of the fact that truancy was an issue influencing our underachieving students.
The research was conducted with the members included two ninth and tenth grade classes and all instructors in grades seven through ten. Since the author taught each class and most of the students had missed no less than one day, and many have unlawfully missed successive days of school. Also, to expand students accomplishment, all students had to know that how missing school influences their learning, and thus the above grades of students were chosen for the research to figure out where the educators remain concerned.

Data was collected and analysed and results were discussed where many students came up with various excuses of being absent from school or class. After analysing the author came up with the fact that participation was very low a need on school advancement and school change designs, however all proof recommends that as an understudy’s participation enhances, so does his relating scholastic execution (Reid, 2006). Also, inconsistent participation can prompt maladjustment, poor scholarly execution, school dropout, substance manhandle, misconduct, also, adolescent pregnancy for the time being, and brutality, conjugal unsteadiness, work insecurity, grown-up culpability, and detainment in the long haul. The immediate expenses of imprisonment surpass $20,000 per detainee every year in the United States (Spelman, 2009) and a similar country’s dropout population costs the nation roughly $260 billion in lost income and done without charges every year (Byer and Khun, 2007). Thus alone, truancy inside American schools should have been wiped out for the improvement of the nation. Educators at the tested school comprehended this, and were interested in utilizing some of their arranging time to diminish student truancy if a truancy decrease program were started. Since no other schools in the region are starting any projects, it was expressed that the school start a test case program.
Thus, to some degree less huge, yet of some esteem, is that if a participation program is started and all around archived, as this program would be, at that point there would be adequate proof to demonstrate to the express that proactive measures have been required with an end goal to diminish, or take out the unpredictable participation. The all-encompassing objective is proactively give backings to students before they achieve the following stage, in this way enabling no child to become lost despite a general sense of vigilance, or to be deserted.

Study 5
Iheanyi N. Okwakpam: Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
Ikechi O. Okwakpam: Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
The case study was based on a contextual investigation configuration for deciding the causes and levels of truancy among secondary school students, at Rivers State, Nigeria. The study comprised of 105 educators and was intentionally inspected. Four research inquiries and one questionnaire was designed and tried individually. An organized poll was produced, approved and regulated to the respondents chose for the case. T-test, standard deviation and mean were utilized to investigate the information gathered. The outcomes demonstrated that there is a difference between family foundation and student factor. The ramification of this is the students’ family foundation contributes incredibly to the students’ level of truancy. Consequently, the invalid theory was rejected. In light of the discoveries, a few suggestions were made towards the reduction of the level of truancy among secondary school students.

The findings of the investigation uncovered that poor self-idea makes a student display a few levels of truancy. The investigation uncovered that low confidence couldnt make a student display truancy. Poor health conditions made students to be truant. This finding concur that mental problems and peer pressure make a student be truant. The after effect of this examination likewise uncovered that student agitation makes a student go truant. This finding also state that forceful conduct causes truancy among students.
However, the study uncovers that lack of security makes a student display truancy, the students absence to school was that the students didn’t have the status to learn, lack of inspiration, no motivation, poor child parenting, needs not met, over indulgence, inordinate domestic work, learning problems are some factors that cause truancy among secondary school students. In the study it disagreed that poor academic performance caused the students to be truant.Scholastics failure, learning problems and learning styles could be one of the great factors to contribute towards truancy among students. Students background was stated as another drawback for student truancy eg financial difficulties as parents are not able to meet the needs of the school or bus fare for the students to go to school, No parents to look after them as they live with guardians, parents couldn’t control their children, divorce or single parent and lack of parental support in appreciating the students educational value.

Moreover, according to the finding of this study money related difficulties in the family were a contributing variable to discretionary school students getting the opportunity to be truant. It stated that various students go hungry now and again in perspective of no attendance of sustenance at home since they are from poor families. They in this manner miss class since they require an opportunity to fight for themselves. This ought to be conceivable through approaching or searching for food. Truant and hungry students may similarly be related with work to get some money to purchase food. Irrelevant cash to amplify family compensation and shocking home conditions cause truancy.

Furthermore, the findings also revealed that the school greatly contributes to truancy among secondary school students. These results concurred when students have problem with educational need ,placement problems, school teachers’ professional misconduct, teachers behaviour towards students, the type of words they use or teachers being abusive or unsympathetic towards a situation where the child is concerned causes truancy.
Another problem the study found was lack of community support. The community did not contribute their support for the school, negative influence in the community went unnoticed or people didn’t want to talk about it. The criminal activities that was done in the community was not high lighted, kidnapping or hostage incidents were not reported or the community didnt want to know about it. It was confirmed that the community influence contributed to the causes of truancy among school students. The study confirmed that the general indiscipline in the society could be the main cause of truancy among students.

Thus, the aim of this research was to find out the causes of truancy among secondary school students in River state Nigeria. It was stated that the reason the research was conducted was to know the cause of truancy among students of Nigeria. The conclusion could be made that to achieve the non-truancy in the river state Nigerian school, students need to achieve a good grade and graduate with good marks to be confident and find good jobs and be very potential in their work. And if the student is not motivated towards their school work the risk of truancy would be high if the child feels that they don’t have confident, they don’t come to school regularly and have peer pressure they would fall back in their studies. It was suggested that school, families, students and society and community at large to contribute towards the betterment of the school then may be there may be reduction in school truancy.

Study 6
This research was done by Martin A. Dohho for is Masters Degree and was given permission to elaborate on the above topic. He was also given the authority by the Mbulu district to do his research on the above school.
In his research the aurthor had to get factors that influence truancy in secondary school in Mbulu District in Tanzania. The study was conducted on randomly selected school in the district. The research was to enlighten and examine factors that could make students go to school and asses the teachers and their views on truancy and also the reason to see if the location of the school was the factor for truancy. The idea was to get factors as to why students missed school and liable for truancy. He researched were developed to find out factors and to help the community and find out what factors manipulated to student truancy. Data were collected and different methods were used to discuss with the community on truancy. In his findings the author discovered that there were number of reasons as to why the students truancy was complex.

It was discussed that peer pressure and factors outside the community were the main factors that affected the students who were young. Here were other factors such as economic factors that would be related to truancy.

However, it was indicated that students lost interest in learning because they were given punishment and to avoid it the students missed school. Another factor discovered was the fact that students were having social interaction as students had love affairs among themselves and outside school as it was the influence in the community. It was also discovered that there were conflict between teachers and students and students were not satisfied with the ability of teachers teaching them. Students with poor educational background were not able to cope with the work given by teachers and lack the interest in their education lead to truancy.

Hence, it was stated that the variables affecting truancy in group based secondary school in Mbulu district were aggravated. Consequently no single factor could remain solitary to clarify factors impacting truancy in group based secondary schools in Mbulu area. The factors uncovered appear to impact students truancy in those schools.
Furthermore, the investigation extricated factors which affected students truancy in group based secondary schools, these were whipping, peer gathering, self-teach remove, family neediness, a school domain, disease, globalization, engagement of students in relationships, family exercises, students school foundation, teachers association with students, under-staffing, and additionally absence of learning and instructing assets. Every one of these elements have been profoundly examined and investigated..
Thus, high rate of truancy demonstrated that, learning conditions in schools were swung to be disagreeable as truancy among students were expanding. The arrangement of controlling
truancy was divided and the methods for tending to the issue weren’t right furthermore, deceptive. A few methods were disregarding chhilddrens fundamental right and there was poor follow-up system. The current methods and practices of student’ suspension, whippings, calling guardians utilized as a part of checking truancy had prompted abuses, infringement of youngster right, unreasonableness and irregularities all these expanded truancy. The issue of truancy won’t be tackled quickly and instruction approaches not actualized as required the nature of individual training level will fall.