Research suggests that parental involvement is essential for children’s academic development. Several researches provide a substantial body of evidence which agree that parent involvement is associated with children’s academic performance and social competence (Hornby, 2011). Conversely, few researches disagree with PI associated with children’s academic development. There are various types of parental involvement including attending PTA meetings at school, assisting with homework and reading with children at home (Epstein, 2009). In this section, I will focus on the theoretical framework which is supported by three prominent theorists- Joyce L. Epstein (2001) Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) and Lev S. Vygotsky (1896-1934). These theorists are selected because their studies support PI on children’s development. They believe that parents’ role is to support children’s academic development.

It is interesting to juxtapose the work of Epstein (2002) who emphasises the importance of parents’ involvement in children’s homework and other aspects of their education in her model (Henderson & Mapp, 2002), which demands parents to ensure that children complete homework/assignment under supervision (McPherson, 2018). Likewise, Freud’s theory supports on childhood and adolescent development with the involvement of parents at both developmental stages.
Freud believes that both parents should work collaboratively to assist children in moving forward academically and socially, and Vygotsky (1896-1934) theory also suggests that parents play a central role in supporting children’s educational growth. He includes a vital theory called the ‘Zone of Proximal Development’ which explains that children require the assistance of parents to enhance their learning (Vygotosky, 1978: 86, cited by Podolskij, 2017).
The “zone of proximal development” is defined as the gap between what a learner has already grasped and what he or she can attain when educational support is provided (Podolskij, 2017). This means that it is a stage of a child’s development that exhibits collaborative activity with an adult, with the exception of the child’s individual activity. As such, PI can employ at this development stage to fulfil the child’s needs (McPherson, 2018). Hence, it is relevant to refer to Vygotsky (1896-1934) work because it contributes to this study as it supports the need for PI in children’s education.
This section further presents a number of literatures on the impact of PI according to themes.
? What describes Parental Involvement (PI)?
? What are some of the factors associated with PI?
? Is there a link between PI and student’s success?
? What are some of the strategies for PI in children’s education?
? Are there any barriers towards PI in children’s education?
? What are the benefits of PI in children’s education?

What describes Parental Involvement in children’s education?
Various studies present different but yet similar descriptions about parental involvement (McPherson, 2018).
Parental involvement notably represents numerous behaviours and practices at home or school such as; reading at home, checking homework, attending PTA, contacting teacher and volunteering at school regarding children’s education as illustrated below (Henderson and Mapp, 2002).
Figure 1 shows prominent aspects of PI practiced at home and school.