This study will use both the Subalternity theory by Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak (1988) and deterministic theory of social change by Karl max (year).According to Spivak, he used the term ‘subaltern’ which he borrowed from Gramci to refer to the unrepresented group of people in the society who are normally the lowest class of people in the society. He argues that the condition of the subaltern is usually pathetic and questions whether they can speak or not. By this, he meant that they are the most oppressed group of people or generally the ones of inferior ranks. He goes ahead to argue that the oppressed have no history and cannot speak, and the subaltern as a female are more deeply in the shadow. This theory formulates that the subaltern are able to speak their mind but nobody is willing to listen to them and even if they listen to them the communication gets distorted somehow. Accordingly, the subaltern have no political agency because they cannot be represented in the society, they cannot have transaction with others due to the disparity that exists in the society. During colonialism, the subaltern were made to be from the inferior group of people and could not fit into the society or make any contribution to the society, but during post colonialism they got freedom and relieved from the terrible clutches of colonial rule as they work hard to find their own past. This theory is relevant to this study because orphans suffer in the name of lack of steady family, they are not able to stand on their own due to the young age and sociocultural factors but once they get assistance they end up having a good life.
The Deterministic Theories of Social Change by Karl Max is widely used by contemporary sociologists. Karl Max aurgues that there are certain forces, social or natural or both which brings about social chamge and that the presence of these forces and circumstatnces determine the course of the social change.
According to Karl Max’s social theory, people are influenced by material conditions for example the amount of food available for everyone in the family. There must be a conflict occurring in an existing stage for a change to occur and this is due to the changes in economic factors, like the mode of production and distribution. An example is when there is little income in the house, there will be little food to share among the members of the household and how it will be shared may bring about disagreement in the house hence conflict and this may make the house head sort into practices like house splitting and this will bring about change in the family setting for the orphan. These changes then bring changes in all social institution and alters the primary socio economic relationships including family.
According to Marx, the social order has passed through five phases called the oriental, the ancient, the feudal, the capitalistic, and the communistic.This is where there will be the capitalists in power then later community will have no state,no class,no conflict and no exploitation.According to him man is destined to attain an ideal stage of existence is little more than visionary.
According to Russels, change is pluralistic rather than monistic in origin. Change is caused not only by economic factors but is also largely automatic in nature.
A number of sociologists have held that social change can be brought about by means of conscious and systematic efforts. Thus, Lester F. Ward asserted that progress can be achieved by means of purposive efforts of conscious planning.Through education and knowledge intellect can assert itself over the emotions so that effective planning is made possible.
This theory is relevant to the research because family institution are altered when one parent passes on and the household undergo a process of change in form of source of income,availability of food due to a natural process of death.The issue of being a single orphan automatically make the child vulnerable.